There are recognised conventions for citing the work of others when writing essays and journal articles etc. In-text citations are placed at the point within the text at which reference is made to another’s work, and these refer the reader to the reference list (sometimes called a bibliography) which is usually placed at the end of the essay/article.
Reference list or bibliography
The terms reference list and bibliography are sometimes used interchangeably, but here we define bibliography as a list of consulted readings - for example a list of sources that you have studied, but have not specifically cited in the text. A bibliography is not required for essays. By contrast, the reference list is defined as a list of cited sources. The sources listed in a reference list must match against the in-text citations and similarly, the in-text citations must have a matching entry in the reference list.
In scientific writing the use of direct quotations is inappropriate, whereas in some subject areas in the Humanities or Social Sciences it is a recognised practice. To make it clear when you are directly quoting from a source, use double quotation marks for short quotations or indentations for longer extracts, and include the page number in the citation.
Paraphrasing the words of others does not make them your own. It must always be clear that the ideas being expressed are those of the original author. Read the passage until you thoroughly understand it, and then write your own version without looking back too often to the original. A citation must still be given to acknowledge the source of the ideas.
The use of secondary referencing in scientific writing is strongly discouraged. You should never cite an article you have not seen in full. If it is impossible to read the original article, but you wish to include the findings of that research as reported in a review or textbook, then you must cite the article or book which refers to the original work, for example: Brown’s results cited by Jones (1999, p. 563) indicated that…
Diagrams and illustrations
Scanned or electronic images included in written work should always be acknowledged by citation. If the work is to be published, permission must be sought from the original creator before inclusion of any graphic material.
Заражал вирусами свое любимое детище. - Нет, - сказала она раздраженно. - Старался спрятать концы в воду, скрыть собственный просчет.
А теперь не может отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ и включить резервное электропитание, потому что вирус заблокировал процессоры.
Глаза Бринкерхоффа чуть не вылезли из орбит.