A growing body of research suggest that if we teach children to become critical viewers, we do more than give them the ability to analyze the construction of isolated images; we also give them the ability to think critically about the composition of the picture, enhancing their ability to read words and worlds.
Although many continue to regard television viewing as a passive process, other see the potential of the video age to develop new literacies while reinforcing traditional literacy. A 1990 issue of The Harvard Education Letter, for example, reported: "The video screen is helping children develop a new kind of literacy — visual literacy that they will need to thrive in a technological world … In television or film, the viewer must mentally integrate diverse camera shots of a scene to construct an image of the whole."
Although television can be used to develop reading skills and promote traditional literacy, it is essential that educators also recognize that television is a unique medium and that to understand it fully we must be conversant with its codes, conventions, and characteristics. That means acknowledging the power of the picture and accepting the fact that seeing is not believing. Jack Solomon said, "Television images lull us into thinking that they are real, that they aren't iconic signs at all but realities. Since we see them, we trust them, often failing to realize that, like all signs, they have been constructed with a certain interest behind them."
Deconstructing these media representations requires relinquishing the powerful and pervasive notion in our culture that seeing is believing, that what you see is what you get. The real issue, however, is whether we "get" (i.e., understand) what we see. The process of reading television addresses some of the following elements.
- Interpreting the internal content of the program.
- Interpreting the internal construction of the frame.
- Recognizing the external forces and factors shaping the program.
- Comparing and contrasting media representations with reality.
- Recognizing and responding to the potential impact of television form and content.
Essentially this involves a narrative analysis or the ability to recall and recognize what happened and why, with reference to genre codes and conventions.
This process focuses attention on media form and style. It includes the overall design and look of the picture and involve such things as camera angles and the various shots used.
This industrial/sociological approach looks at issues such as media ownership and control in an attempt to understand how these factors shape programming. A simple example would address the relationship between media ownership and the depiction of women and minorities in the media. Can a patriarchal white industry fairly depict women and minorities?
This might include comparing television's depiction of the Vietnam War (Tour of Duty, China Beach) with documentaries or histories of the war. It might also include studying incidents of violence on television compared to the national crime statistics or examining the depiction of groups, races, religions, and nationalities to detect stereotyping and bias.
This focuses attention on appropriate responses and viewing behavior including writing to producers and sponsors, as well as using television more selectively.
To be successful in sales and business requires to be engaged with the sales prospect or customer. This engagement requires both the brain (thinking) and the heart (caring).
Yet 2016 research from Pay Scale among others continues to suggest recent college graduates lacked critical thinking and problem-solving skills. These "soft" brain skills appear to be no longer taught to the degree employers now require.
When this skill research is examined, hard skills such as writing, public speaking and data analysis were lacking. Of the more than 63,000 managers, 44 percent agreed poor writing proficiency was the most problematic.
Yet it was the soft skills where there was even greater agreement. Sixty percent of those same managers shared new graduates do not have critical thinking and problem solving skills. Additionally, 56 percent of the managers said recent graduates fail to pay attention to detail.
With the emphasis on closing the technical skills gap during the last decade, soft skills appear to have taken a back seat. Ed Reilly, CEO of the American Management Association suggested in an interview with CNBC this emphasis on technical skills failed to include communication skills and critical thinking skills necessary to make key decisions at lower levels.
To achieve this now soft skill of critical thinking requires all organizations to allow creative and divergent thinking. In other words, there is more than just one right answer.
Sir Ken Robinson, a noted English author and international adviser on education suggested schools are teaching the creativity out of students. For example, students are taught that a brick has only one use to construct buildings instead of thinking of 75 other ways to use the brick, according to Gallup.
Critical thinking and problem-solving are separate skills. The first involves the brain and the second involves the brain as well as the hand or the doing part. Creativity is very much like a bridge that connects the thinking to the doing.
In some organizations, those in leadership roles sometimes say they want divergent thinking, but instead want their own thinking reaffirmed. This only further isolates any critical thinking and problem solving to the back room.
There are strategies to improve critical thinking and usually the simplest way is to ask yourself or others, "How else can this task be completed?" In the past, this strategy was called "brainstorming."
The heart of emotional intelligence will be the focus on next week's column.
Leanne Hoagland-Smith is an author, speaker and executive coach. Her weekly column explores issues that impact the bottom line of firms with fewer than 100 employees. She can be reached at 219-508-2859.