Comparison Between Athenian And Spartan Education Essay

Athens Vs. Sparta Tyler King Greece, a country united by its name, but divided by its opinions, was separated into many city-states. The two most authoritative states were the two that were always at war. These very distinct provinces were that of Sparta and Athens. Sparta was focused on having a perfect military, whereas Athens made it a point to have a perfect government for their people. Athenian daily life revolved around learning and knowledge where a Spartan male devoted his time to the army. When Athenian children were being trained for life, Spartan children were being trained for battle. Athens and Sparta were very different, especially in their views of politics, military, and culture. These two city-states had very different opinions of their military. They were both very powerful and extremely feared. Many Greek cities dreaded facing the Athenian navy where Sparta frightened these city-states on land. The lives of Spartans revolved around military. At age seven, each and every Spartan boy would be required to start his training at the agoge to become an elite fighter. The education given was meant to create Spartans into soldiers. Not only were the Spartans raised to be military-minded, but they were also expected to be a disciplined soldier. The strict rules of the government made it so that every Spartan was to be physically fit and always ready for battle. Once of age and rank, a Spartan warrior would be invited to a mess, this would house a Spartan for the rest of his life. Without belonging to a mess, a Spartan would be nothing. Spartans thrived for battle and this is why they continuously won each battle they entered. The Spartan soldiers remained very close with each other considering most of them are related. They fight in a phalanx formation, which is almost impeccable. Before being defeated at the battle of Epiminondas against Thebes, the Spartan army was triumphant in over 300 continuous battles. The Athenian army, on the other hand, was based on the “hoplite” or foot soldier, and it’s navy. It was one of the first navy’s established in the ancient world and this was why it flourished. The Athenians continually added new ships, making it almost impossible for other armies to defeat. Politics was one of the main causes for battle between these two historical ity-states. As in many Greek city-states, Athenian government evolved from a monarchy into an aristocracy. Around 700 B. C. , noble landowners began chosing the chief officials. Nobles judged major cases in court and dominated the assembly. Athenian wealth and power grew under the aristocracy. Yet discontent spread over the commoners. Merchants and soldiers resented the power of the nobles and argued that their services to Athens entitled them to more rights. As discontent spread, the government slowly moved towards a democracy. Solon, one of Athens greatest leaders, made many reforms such as outlawing debt slavery. Solon also promoted freeing those who had already been sold into slavery due to their debt. The Spartans formed a very complex government mixing democracy and oligarchy, and this form of government was a model for other city-states. The government was made up of four parts, the kingship, the council of elders, the Ephorate, and the Assembly. The kingship in Sparta was shared by two kings who inherited their position for life. They shared equal powers which included being active commanders of the army, which gave them power to go to war with any country they choose. The council of elders, called Gerousia, were elected by the Assembly and held office for life. The Gerousia consisted of 30 men including the two kings that decided whether or not a child would be raised or not. If they were to not be raised, the children would be left for dead. The Ephorate was the biggest constitutional change which occured after the first Peloponnesian war. It consisted of five men who were chosen by the kings, but soon that would change and these men would be elected annually. Their basic role was to keep the kings on the right track, to make sure that they stood by their oaths, and this was to keep the kings from gaining too much power. The Assembly was made up of male Spartan citizens over the age of thirty. Culture was a major diversion between these two ferocious city-states. Athens offered an all around education where everyone was entitled to learn, not just the rich. The daily life of an Athenian incorporated knowledge with military tactics, and this is why they were so successful. The Athenians were also concerned with making a profit so they became sea traders, which was a major income for the Athenian city. Unlike the Athenians, the Spartans were culturally backward, which means we never learned from this society's way of life. They had no real family life and were very militaristic. They spoke in laconic phrases, which meant they answered or spoke in as little words as possible. They were forced to marry at 30 so they could produce as many healthy children as possible considering all unhealthy children were left to die. Athens and Sparta were two very unrelated city-states which caused for much tension between them. They did not agree on many things including military tactics, treatment of slaves, politics, and the daily life a citizen lived. An Athenian person was very well educated where as a Spartan was a natural born warrior. These provinces battled for a very long time before Sparta emerged victorious.

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Similarities and Differences: Ancient Greece vs. Ancient Rome Many qualities of the Ancient Roman civilization were undoubtedly borrowed from their predecessors of the Greek culture (Bonner 1). Roman education, however, is only a reflection of the Greek education system. Ancient Roman education tactics differ from the education methods used by Ancient Greek instruction. Nevertheless, these two different approaches contain many similarities. Although the Romans made an effort to reproduce the style of education maintained by the Greeks, their attempts failed; however Rome managed to adopt many principles of Greek education in the process.

This is made apparent by comparing and contrasting Greek and Roman education methods as well as the explanation of the worldly problems and expectations each culture was facing during this era. It was not until Rome conquered the small Greek society, Tarentum, in 272 B. C. that they could see the importance of being intellectuals (Dobson 92). This contact with Greek culture allowed Romans to employ the Greek values of education that could be observed within this small culture (Dobson 92). Prior to the creation of state maintained schools and academies in Greece, higher education was mainly reserved for the elite persons of a community (Handbook: Greece 253).

Training for these citizens consisted of instruction in the areas of music, poetry, numeracy, and religious ritual (Handbook: Greece 253). Unlike the Greeks, Roman education was practically nonexistent before the development of official school systems in the Roman culture (Dobson 91). By law, early Roman education required that the father be the only schoolmaster of his son (Dobson 94). The mother would teach children basic principles until age seven (Avi-Yonah 176). Afterward, the father was in charge of the upbringing of his child (Avi-Yonah 176).

Aside from teaching basic reading, writing, and arithmetic, the primary subject of instruction consisted almost entirely of battle tactics and farming procedures (Avi-Yonah 176). Ancient Greece developed the idea of school systems around mid seventh century B. C. , one century after writing was introduced (Handbook: Greece 253), however, it was not until the Hellenistic age that these schools were founded or maintained by the city (Devambez 404). Before the Hellenistic age parents were encouraged to send their students to school, but were not forced by law (Devambez 404). The parents of a student would pay a fee to the teacher in exchange for tutoring (Devambez 404).

The fees were typically very low because most of the teachers were slaves or very poorly paid (Handbook: Greece 254). The only children that lacked proper education were those from impoverished families that could not afford to pay the teaching fees (Devambez 404). Roman education began much differently than Greece education. After centuries of war between Rome and its neighboring countries, Romans finally found enough time for studying the arts (Dobson 92). It is unclear when the Ancient Romans originally established a school system because there is no much controversy over the different accounts (Dobson 96), however the first documented account was in the third century B.

C. (Handbook: Rome 211). Romans strive d to achieve the same level of education system as Ancient Greece; however, the few educated Romans that attempted to establish the Roman education system were generally unsuccessful in their efforts (Avi-Yonah, 177). Roman education topics were similar to those in Greece, yet the approach of education was very dissimilar. The short- lived earlier Roman style of teaching involved much different concepts than the systems used by the Ancient Greeks (Handbook: Rome, 211).

The instructors for these subjects were generally Greeks that had been enslaved and forced to teach (Bonner 165). This explains the similarities between the subject matter taught in both Roman and Greek schools. The main areas of instruction for both Ancient Roman and Greek pupils were composed of basic arithmetic and reading and writing skills until at least age eleven (Handbook: Rome 211). With the exception of Sparta, Classic Greek schools taught these basic skills to practically all young children, but only the sons of the rich would continue their studies up to age eighteen (Handbook: Greece 253).

Classical Athens consisted of three basic forms of education: reading, music, and gymnastics (Handbook: Greece 253) Athenian schools consisted of reading, writing, and arithmetic taught by a, which was a tutor for young children (Handbook: Greece 253). Reading in schools of Classical Athens typically involved the works of Homer (Dewald 1099). Homeric literature created a basis for teaching the basic reading and writing skills as well as literary expertise (Dewald 1078). Progress was recorded by how many Homeric works a student had read as well as which ones (Dewald 1079). Music and poetry was taught by a, or lyre player (Handbook: Greece 253). Music was a very important aspect of Greek education and a great deal of importance was laid on the instruction of singing and musical instruments in both Sparta and Classical Athens (Devambez 173).

They created a new durable science and aesthetic of music that was applied to mathematics and used for psychological insight into the performer (Levi 151). A, or trainer, taught sports and physical education (Handbook: Greece 253). This aspect of education was enforced more in the Spartan society than in Athens (Handbook: Greece 253). Unlike Athens, Spartan schools enforced a militaristic type of education (Handbook: Greece 253).

Boys between the ages of seventy and twenty were taken from their homes and trained in combat with an emphasis on music and dancing, sports and physical education (Handbook: Greece 253). The girls were also trained in these subjects in order to be fit mothers of future warriors (Handbook: Greece 253). During Hellenistic times, the children were broken into three age groups (Handbook: Greece 254). This is the period in which secondary education emerged, along with the structuring of public school buildings, gymnasiums, and libraries (Handbook: Greece 254). Almost every community held these buildings and public schooling was practically enforced by common law (Levi 154). The Hellenistic period gave way to new teaching principles and higher education (Dewald 1090).

Children were split into age groups that consisted of children up to age fourteen, children fourteen through eighteen, and those over eighteen (Handbook: Greece 254). The second group of students would continue their education and further their knowledge of unknown subjects (Handbook: Greece 254). Due to increased research on certain areas of study, children were then able to explore new fields of interest, rather than the basic reading, writing, and arithmetic that was being taught in Classical Athens (Dewald 1090) The sciences were one of the many subjects that researchers gained interest in (Dewald 1090). Science and mathematics were very important to the Greeks philosophers because the two subjects were so closely related; they were often taught as a function of one another (Dewald 1090). Many philosophers even created Academies for the specific intent of furthering the knowledge of these subjects and how they affected astronomy, philosophy, and other important topics of the unknown world (Dewald 1088-1089). Before the creation of schools, early Roman education principles resembled those of Sparta more than any other Greek society.

In Roman society, after the age of eleven the son would be taught additional literary subjects in Latin and Greek by a in order to prepare for rhetoric (Handbook Rome 211). However, the main study of interest was weapon handling and combat routines (Dobson 95). This is probably due to the preoccupation with war and survival during the first five hundred years of Roman existence (Dobson 91). As Roman education advanced and schools were formed, Greek slaves were taken as tutors (Bonner 37). Roman curriculum consisted of many of the same concepts as the Greeks, but was also very different in content. Roman education soon began to resemble that of the Greeks during the Hellenistic period (Gwynn 35).

Greek philosophers that came to Rome soon after the conquer of Tarentum contributed to the Hellenization of Roman culture (Gwynn 35). One difference between the rhetoric styles of Roman and Greece is the fact that Romans adopted the Latin style of rhetoric by about second century B. C. (Handbook: Rome 211). As the Greek students had studied Homer, there was no dominant literary source for Roman society, therefore the children studied both Greek and Latin literature (Dobson 98). Because the idea of Roman education was to produce "useful citizens", which was the social approach to teaching, young Romans studied the literature in order to develop effective speaking skills (Handbook: Rome, 211).

In this way, Rome replicated the Greek culture, however, the learning styles were somewhat different in that Greek studied Homer for historical records and literary accounts, but Romans used these literary works to improve their social and writing skills (Handbook: Rome, 211). A fundamental difference between these two cultures is the incorporation of foreign languages (Dobson 111). While the Romans primarily spoke Latin, many of the study texts were written in the Greek language and required translation by the Roman students (Dobson 111). The Greeks had never included any language other than their own in their studies (Dobson 111). Another difference in the content of Roman studies includes the study of history (Dobson 118).

Young Romans would study the history of their country's legends in great detail, whereas Greeks primarily studied the fictional accounts of Homer (Dobson 118). In addition, Romans did not study mathematics and science as specifically as the Greeks had (Dobson 127). The basic groups of study for these two cultures were fundamentally similar. Roman children were often split into age groups for teaching, just as the Greeks had done during Hellenistic times.

After age seven the children were taught basic skills and would advance to more complex material at age twelve (Handbook: Rome 211). Their education would then continue until the age of eighteen or nineteen (Bonner 45). Just as the Greeks had, Roman schools also included poetry and music as a basic area of study, although these subjects were not as highly esteemed as they were in the Greek schools (Bonner 44). Both boys and girls would participate in chorus as well as individual performances and many would accompany themselves on stringed instruments (Bonner 44).

Although musicians were considered socially inferior by Roman societal standards, music was often incorporated in religious ceremonies and special occasions (Avi-Yonah 304). Continued education was significantly dissimilar in Greece than in Rome (Avi-Yonah 13). Greek Academies were widespread by around 300 B. C. , however, little is known about academies during the Roman Empire (Avi-Yonah 13).

Most Romans that wished to continue their education were sent to Greek academies for further study, or would hire a specialist (Avi-Yonah 177). Eventually, Rome began to adopt specialty schools, but mainly in the subjects of Roman law and music (Avi-Yonah 177). Greek academies were prevalent during Roman existence. One of the well-known Greek academies that existed around 387 B. C. was Plato's Academy (Dewald 1088).

Plato was a devoted pupil of Socrates and founded this academy primarily for the pursuit of knowledge (Handbook: Greece 254). The instruction included important intellectual aptitude mainly in the subjects of mathematics and poetry, which were not popular among the Roman pupils (Dewald 1088). Shortly after Plato's Academy was founded, Aristotle launched another admired research establishment (Dewald 1090). Aristotle's Lyceum did not use dialect and discussion in the pursuit of knowledge (Dewald 1090). His theory included further study of biology rather than mathematics and believed in extensive research of this subject (Dewald 1090). The Lyceum was originally founded in order to collect biological research and further the knowledge of unknown materials (Dewald 1090).

These institutions were among the greatest secondary schools in Ancient Greece, and were the models for establishments that followed (Dewald 1091). Because Roman scholars did not readily accept the theories and study of sciences, which were appointed by these schools, continued education for Romans was very undesirable (Dewald 1088). This could have been one of the main attributes to the lack of well-educated Romans during this time period. Based on the knowledge and research collaborated in this paper, this writer has concluded that although Roman education was very similar to the Hellenistic style of education, it still lacks the order and consistency of the Greek methods of teaching. Roman education was founded much later than Greek education and was actually based on the same style of teaching, however, Roman education tended to include its own subject matter and style in its teachings. Although many Romans intended to Hellenize Roman education, the attempts were failed.

Romans simply did not duplicate the Greeks. However, the Romans did adopt many Greek principles of education in the process. Annotated Bibliography Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc.

, 1997. This book is written on the basis of published sources and contains photographs of authentic Ancient Greek artifacts. The authors use unbiased text to describe the customs and habits of daily life in Ancient Greece. These habits are illustrated through the explanation of subjects such as rulers and leaders, economy and trade, geography, mythology, philosophy, and various other aspects of everyday life in Ancient Greece. The topics covered by this handbook are arranged by major areas of study and featured in ten separate chapters. The subject matter within chapters is compiled on the basis of time period in which the events occurred and the different areas that were effected by the event or subject.

The book contains an index with references to particular subjects mentioned throughout the book and includes explanations of certain words. The author's intentions were to summarize the material covered and does not include minor details, however this source also includes a complete bibliography that can be used to find further references on any subject covered by this book. This source is helpful in explaining the practice of education in Ancient Greek times because it explains the daily events that revolved around the education aspect of the culture. The chapter entitled "Written Evidence" contains a summarized account of education rituals within three different societies of Ancient Greece: Sparta, Classical Athens, and the Hellenistic culture. This section explains the amount of education generally received by the citizens of a culture and describes the type of education given to the men and women of these cultures. This book also consists of several authentic photos and drawings that can be useful in describing the characteristics of education (i.

e. writing utensils, alphabet, numerals, etc. ). Aside from the section explaining education rituals, the author also includes an account of the Greek alphabet and how it developed through time, as well as a description of the numeral system and its significance in numerous areas of study. The importance of literature in education is also explained through a timetable of authors and literary events, however the events are not described any further than the date of the account. Music and dance is another important element of education in Ancient Greece.

This handbook contains a section that relates music and dance to the everyday lives of the citizens. It explains how this element affected the learning techniques as well as traditions, celebrations and rituals. This source is a reliable reference for a summarized account of particular events and several aspects of Ancient Greek culture, however the authors do not include major details of these events and all subject matter has been summarized and shortened to create this handbook. Devambez, Pierre, Robert Flaceliere, and Pierre-Maxime Schuhl.

A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Civilisation. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd. 1966. The three main contributors of this book are three Hellenist's: a philosopher, a literary historian, and an archeologist.

These authors are also professors and / or philosophers in the subjects covered by this material. Pierre Devambez is the head of the Greek and Roman antiquities in the Louver and the director of studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (7). Robert Flaceliere, the second contributor to this work, is a professor of Greek rhetoric at the Sorbonne and a director of the Ecole Normale Superieure. The third contributor, Pierre-Maxime Schuhl, is a professor of Classical Grammar and Philology at the University of Dijon. Through out the text they examine the "religious beliefs, way of life, economy, social and political structure of the Ancient Greeks" (5) by giving descriptions of commonly used terms of Ancient Greek culture. The basis for their descriptions is dependent upon the historical events and the geographical setting of the country.

The author has intended this source for sophisticated readers, chiefly students, not specialists. Because of this, the information includes a proper explanation of words and phrases that a reader of this nature may not understand. The dictionary is organized alphabetically and includes in-depth definitions of countless words that are often used when describing Greek culture. The definitions are accompanied by numerous photographs and drawings of applicable artifacts that applicable in describing the particular terms or phrases. These photographs are employed in the descriptions of several terms and help to further the knowledge of the reader. The entries include a variety of important figures, events, and features in Greek history.

This book is no more than a preparatory foundation that is meant to inform, not educate. The dictionary includes authentic photographs of Ancient artifacts of Greek culture. Some of the photographs are particularly useful for the subject of education. They demonstrate how teachers and pupils were portrayed in ancient pictures and on artifacts. The dictionary includes many terms that could be useful in examining the art of education in ancient Greek culture; these terms include education and academy, among others. The entry on education aids in the research of schools of Ancient Greece and the art of teaching, however it is a summarized overview and does not completely explain the subjects and techniques used in training pupils in a particular area of study.

Dewald, Carolyn "Greek Education and Rhetoric." Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean. Ed. Grant, Micheal, and Rachel Kit zinger. Vol.

2. Greece and Rome. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. 3 Vols. 1077-1107. This source comes from volume two of a three volume set that explains, In detail, various aspects of Ancient Greek culture.

The subsection entitled "Greek Education and Rhetoric" is under the section of "Private and Social Life" in volume two of this set. The book is contributed by eighty-eight scholars that have written ninety-seven essays on various aspects of Greek culture. The authors write based on concrete facts and notable ideas. The book shows both achievements and flaws of the ancient world and contains contradictions and differences of opinion by the writers. The author of this essay explains education through different time periods and communities throughout the ancient Greek culture.

The writer explains how schools and academies used literary works to educate pupils. She also illustrates how literary writers required an education in order to construct epic poems and other pieces. The author also describes the contribution made by sophists in the art of rhetoric. This well documented essay explains the subjects of professional education and technical rhetoric in the fourth century and the developments that were made in those subjects in order to better educate the pupils of the schools. The writer also explains orations and speech in the culture. The essay also goes into great detail to describe both the educational system and rhetoric of the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman cultures.

This section is especially helpful for locating facts on the subject of education during ancient times. This source is not especially pertinent to finding reference to the development of the alphabet or numbers, and also does not describe the materials used or the conditions of school systems of that time period. This source is very useful for an in-depth description of how the pupils were taught, however, it fails to describe the quality of the education system used by the ancient Greeks. Levi, Peter.

Atlas of the Greek World. Amsterdam: Elsevier International Products, 1980. This book is written by a scholar of Greek history and is contributed by other knowledgeable scholars in the subjects of history, art, sculptures, and various other aspects. The author of this book believes that pictures, plans, maps, and continuous text are absolutely necessary in describing the culture of the ancient Greek world.

Equally important to this source is the use of specific themes and anecdotes that the author has included. The intent of the author in writing this text is to "make sense of" of the ancient Greeks in all aspects (10). In other words, the author is studying Greek tendencies and how they pertain to the knowledge the Greeks acquired of particular subjects. These subjects include the mental capabilities of the Greeks and their spiritual world along with physical features of the world the Greeks inhabited.

This book contains a chronological table that illustrates the history of several features of Greek culture. This table covers 5000 years from 3000 B. C. through 2000 A. D.

The table illustrates major events that occurred within a specific topic. These topics include, but are not limited to: Pottery style, art and architecture, literature, philosophy, and science. This book will help to acknowledge the Greek culture and how it affects the education habits of the Greek citizens. It also includes a brief summary of how music and dance affected education. The passage demonstrates the emphasis that the Greek culture has put on the importance of music and education. The entire book contains numerous pictures and illustrations to help present the information with a visual approach.

These pictures and illustrations include accounts of musical instruments, pictures of uncovered artifacts, and photographs of ancient monuments in Greece. This book is valuable for researching information as it pertains to the geographical environment because it gives useful maps and various other reference sources to explain the development of a culture throughout time, however, this source does not include a thorough written account of any particular aspect within itself. The author has arranged the information into the form of an atlas in order to explain the expansion of a specific region or culture. This particular source does not tell the reader much about education specifically; the subject is explained only in context to music and how the education system relies on music and dance as a vital part of a learning experience. Sacks, David. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World.

New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc. , 1995. The author is a scholar of Greek studies. This encyclopedia covers 2000 years from third millennium B.

C. to 146 B. C. The book begins the time period covered with the Minoan civilization and end with the Roman annexation of mainland Greece (xiii). The extent of the descriptions of entries included will be based on the findings from the aforementioned time period and does not include any other dates or periods.

The author of this encyclopedia is a graduate of Oxford College with studies in ancient history. The historical consultant for this book is Os wyn Murray, a former teacher of the author and a lecturer in Ancient History at Oxford University. Two other scholars that are professors in Ancient Studies also contribute the book. The author's goal is to give all the essential information about the ancient Greek World by describing the flaws as well as the achievements.

The book is arranged in alphabetical order featuring fairly detailed definitions for various words and phrases commonly associated with Ancient Greek culture. The book features a two page description of education in Ancient Greece along with cross references to other relevant entries associated with the subject of education. The book also supplies a complete bibliography of over one hundred references as well as references to ancient authors in both Greek and the translated versions. The author does not include entries that were not greatly significant to the development of the culture, however, many names or topics that were of value to the description were included in cross-references of the texts or may have been listed in the index.

The entries include English-language nouns and a description of that aspect of Ancient Greece, as well as the names of prominent Greek figures, cities and regions. This book contains illustrations for certain entries in order to better illustrate the information described. The author also compares Greek culture to that of the Romans, which preceded the Greeks in the 700 s or 600 s B. C. He explains the influence of Greek culture on the Roman world as well as other peoples that were prot " eg'eyes of the Greek culture. He discusses many Near Eastern people that were influenced by Greek culture and how the influence changed the way other cultures worked completely.

This source is not a dependable source of information regarding the collaboration of multiple events and subjects and how they may relate to one another. However this encyclopedia is a relevant source for describing one specific aspect of a culture and gives many pertinent cross -references to help further the explanation of a specific subject in regards to other aspects of Greek life. Dobson, J. F. "Rome" and "Roman Theory." Ancient Education and Its Meaning to Us. New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co.

, 1932. 91-133. This literary source provides facts about the beginning of Roman education. At the time of the book's publication, the author of this book was a professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge and had received his M.

A. from Trinity College, Cambridge. The book is broken into eight sections, each containing educational subject matter from a one of three ancient societies: Sparta, Athens, and Rome. The author gives details about the education system of each society written in essay form and explains theories on the development of the cultures in relation to one another. The two sections of importance for the purpose of this paper are the sections entitled "Rome" and "Roman Theory." Each of these sections contains notes by the author which inform the reader of the sources researched for each specific piece of information, as well as a detailed bibliography including approximately fifty research materials and forty-five authors and titles of sources mentioned within the text.

The intention of the author in writing this book is to help educated readers to better understand how the education of ancient civilization can relate to modern times. These articles tell not only of the basic details of education rituals, but also explains how the system of education was adopted in Rome and the factors that helped it to evolve over several centuries. Annotated Bibliography -Rome Tracy Belcher Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. "Written Evidence." Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome.

New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc. , 1994. 200-214. The authors wrote this book to provide facts on the subject of ancient Rome. The authors have a scholarly background, and used numerous reliable sources to compile this book.

This particular book covers every aspect of Ancient Rome from the beginning of the culture, giving dates and times of critical events, as well as thoroughly explaining the everyday lives of the citizens of Rome. The book holds no bias based on the idea that the information consists of facts based on historical value. The book is broken into nine chapters, with the headings identifying each major area of study. The material within these headings are arranged by the time period they emerged onto the scene, or the transformation of its meaning throughout the ancient world. The book contains pictures and maps, a complete index, and an in-depth bibliography in order to further the reader's research possibilities.

This literary source is more in tune with general facts and topics, and leaves out many of the minor details that may be explained if it had a more specified topic. The author creates a very general overview of life in ancient Rome, which includes the idea of education in Rome. The overview of life is greatly desired in order to further the understanding of Roman education. The section entitled "Written Evidence" gives a general overlay of Roman education and the materials applied for instruction.

It also gives adequate information about the teachers and literature used in the education process. Each author, or scholarly writer, has his or her own paragraph explaining why these figures were so beneficial to Roman society. The book also contains illustrations and photographs to show the increments of Roman education. The book goes through features by dating Roman authors and explaining their affect on Roman education habits. The section goes on to explain the types of Roman literature studied and gives a chronology of literature employed. The book is a reasonably reliable source, but gives only basic facts of Roman education.

The book tends to leave out important details about Roman curriculum, but covers other minor details including the Roman alphabet. Bonner, Stanley F. Education in Ancient Rome. Great Britain, UK: University of California Press, 1977. The author of this text is a professor at the University of Liverpool. He spent several years researching this one aspect of Ancient Rome in order to obtain a better understanding of its education system.

He reciprocates this knowledge through this written essay by giving a detailed description of education in Rome rather than a general overview. The knowledge is contributed by various scholars and professors which the author collaborated with to write this book. His purpose was not to discuss basic principles, but to give a better understanding of the entire structure of education in this culture for anyone who may have been misinformed by other material. The book is sectioned into three main parts, and twenty-one individual chapters. The book in a whole describes a child's life, throughout the generations and centuries. The book also includes an in-depth bibliography, which is also broken into sections of study, because of the numerous sources and scholars associated with the book, there should be little or no bias.

Everything the author has written is a borrowed idea, with exception to the conclusion. The book contains a biography of the elder Cato. From this, the author demonstrates a real life account of how education was used and shows the break down of the barrier between nobility and education. There are many illustrations throughout the text that help to demonstrate the education process including pictures of writing utensils, inkpot's, as well as numbers symbolized by a hand. This material shows the Roman's deficiencies as well as its triumphs and lacks very little information in comprehending this subject as a whole. Gwynn, Aubrey.

Roman Education: From Cicero to Quintilian. London, England: Oxford University Press, 1926. The author, Aubrey Gwynn, wrote this essay after studying for ten years for his M. A. thesis. He was awarded a traveling scholarship to study at Oxford University, and wrote this with the assistance of the Oxford tutors.

The author does admit that he focused on the general principles of Roman education, and did not really explain his ideas comprehensively. Gwynn divided this book into ten chapters, with sub-chapters when needed to break down a broad idea. The author also separated his chapters by time frame and the evolution of education in Rome. The intended audience is presumed to be the viewer of this thesis, but the essay was later reconstructed for the use of research for the educated reader. Its sole intent was to inform with fact, and not leave a philosophical meaning of theory within the reader. This is said after viewing the bibliography and noticing some of the sources used.

This author also decides to take the topic of education further by explaining the elements involved during the transformation of Roman education well into the A. D. years. The author provides justice for his theories by saying no other textbook has the grammar or rhetoric to show the authority of Quintilian, which he holds as the most prominent figure in Roman education. In this way the author could be considered bias, especially since he gives very little credit to the founders of the Roman system.

Rather than giving credit to Quintilian for revolutionizing the field, this author reveres Quintilian as the greatest teacher of his time. One flaw in this source is the lack of extra material used to create greater meaning. Gwynn left out illustrations, maps, appendixes etc. and the bibliography is less diverse than others.

The inclusion of maps and charts could have helped to show diffusion of the Roman civilization and the context of Rome with neighboring cultures. This book does not seem give a very accurate description of the evolution of education in Rome. Avi-Yonah, Michael and Shatzman, Israel. Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Classical World. New York, NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1975. The authors of this text were professors at the Hebrew University, but mainly wrote several volumes of encyclopedias for quick reference to topics.

Both authors are widely revered scholars, who have multiple publications of Roman history. Shatzman studied in the area of Roman wealth with politics as his specialty. The qualifications of these authors are prudentially sound, so they compiled a volume of encyclopedias. Their purpose for writing the encyclopedias was to assist struggling researchers, but also to show how the modern world has been molded around history.

The encyclopedia covers every technical word used in the ancient, classical world, and provides in depth definitions of each of the subjects covered. The text provides no bias because it is simply facts and definitions. The text contains a broad range of ideas, and common facts, but also offers many bibliographical sources to further independent research and studies. The passage about Roman education explains the same facts the other authors used and reiterates the importance of education in the family. This book contains very useful entries for the research topic of Roman education. The entry entitled "Roman Education" is one page in length and is merely a summarized account of education in Ancient Rome, however, this encyclopedia also contains cross references to other important entries that relate to Roman education, such as academies for further study, music, and various other subjects.

This book is useful for identifying the key elements of a particular subject, however, it is difficult to relate the subjects to one another and the material given for any specific entry is inadequately thorough. Tracy BelcherGSTR 220 Dr. Robert Hoag Sentence Outline Education in Rome vs. Education in Greece. Roman education is only a reflection, not duplication, of the Greek education system. II.

Before schools were developed, Roman education was practically nonexistent, and education in Greece was reserved for the elite in the community. A. Training for the chosen Greek pupils included education on the subjects of music, poetry, numeracy, and religious ritual. B. By house rule, early Roman education consisted of the father as the only schoolmaster of his children. III.

The development of school systems in these cultures shows some similarities in instructional content, but the system of teaching was very different. A. Ancient Greece developed the idea of school systems around the mid-seventh century B. C. B. Romans strive d to achieve the same level of education as Ancient Greece.

IV. The main area of instruction for both Ancient Roman and Greek pupils were primarily composed of basic arithmetic and reading and writing skills until at least age eleven. A. Classical Athens consisted of three basic forms of education: reading, music, and gymnastics. i. Reading in schools of Classical Athens typically involved the accounts of Homer.

ii. Music was a very important aspect of Greek education. iii. A, or trainer, taught sports and physical education.

The Hellenistic period gave way to secondary education and new teaching principles. i. Children were split into age groups and studied subjects that pertained to each specific group based on the instruction that the students had already received. ii. Science and mathematics became very popular areas of study during this period of Greek culture. C.

Roman curriculum consisted of many of the same concepts as the Greeks, but was also very different in content. i. As the Greek students had studied Homer, there was no dominant literary source for Roman society, therefore the children studied both Greek and Latin literature in order to obtain effective speaking skills. ii. A fundamental difference between these two cultures is the incorporation of foreign languages. iii.

Young Romans would study the history of their country's legends in great detail. D. The basic techniques of study for these two cultures were fundamentally similar. i. Roman children were often split into age groups for teaching, just as the Greeks had done during Hellenistic times. ii.

Music also played a role in Roman curriculum, although it was not as highly esteemed as in the Greek schools. V. Continued education was significantly dissimilar in Greece than in Rome. A. Most Romans that wished to continue their education were sent to Greek academies for further study, or would hire a specialist. B.

Greek academies were prevalent during Roman existence. i. Plato's Academy was one of the well- known Greek academies that existed sometime around 387 B. C. ii.

Aristotle's Lyceum was another research establishment that was founded after Plato's Academy and taught using different principles than most. VI. Although many Romans intended to Hellenize Roman education, the attempts were failed.

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